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Arts Culture 「清明節」其實不是節日、吃這食物才應景?掃墓又有哪些禁忌要注意?

「清明節」其實不是節日、吃這食物才應景?掃墓又有哪些禁忌要注意?

GUANGZHOU, CHINA - APRIL 05:  (CHINA OUT) People mourn their ancestors and the deceased at a cemetery during Qingming Festival (also known as Tomb-sweeping Festival) on April 5, 2015 in Guangzhou, Guangdong province of China. Chinese traditional Qingming Festival, or "Tomb-sweeping Day", which is on April 5 theis year according to Chinese calendar, is a traditional time when people worship the deceased and ancestors, involving cleaning and repairing tombs and other sacrifice activities.  (Photo by Visual Ch
GUANGZHOU, CHINA - APRIL 05: (CHINA OUT) People mourn their ancestors and the deceased at a cemetery during Qingming Festival (also known as Tomb-sweeping Festival) on April 5, 2015 in Guangzhou, Guangdong province of China. Chinese traditional Qingming Festival, or "Tomb-sweeping Day", which is on April 5 theis year according to Chinese calendar, is a traditional time when people worship the deceased and ancestors, involving cleaning and repairing tombs and other sacrifice activities. (Photo by Visual Ch
By Allison Chen
March 30, 2021
本週即將迎來期盼許久的連續假期,放假之餘也要長知識,清明節的由來是什麼?除了掃墓外習俗上還會做哪些事?又有哪些禁忌?

本週五就是四天連續假期了,通常每年這時候多數人會按照傳統習俗,和家人親戚一同祭奠祖先,抑或善用難得的連假出門踏青走走。而 4 月 5 日是國定「民族掃墓節」,也就是大家俗稱的清明節,跟 Tatler 一起來認識一下這重要的節日。

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SINGAPORE - APRIL 04:  Family members visit the tomb of their loved ones to pay their respects and burn offerings at the Choa Chu Kang Chinese Cemetery during the Qing Ming Festival on April 4, 2013 in Singapore. Qing Ming, also known as Tomb-Sweeping Day, is an annual Chinese festival to commemorate the dead. Families mark the day by visiting and cleaning the graves of their ancestors, burning incense and paper money and presenting offerings such as food, tea, wine and joss paper accessories.  (Photo by Su
SINGAPORE - APRIL 04: Family members visit the tomb of their loved ones to pay their respects and burn offerings at the Choa Chu Kang Chinese Cemetery during the Qing Ming Festival on April 4, 2013 in Singapore. Qing Ming, also known as Tomb-Sweeping Day, is an annual Chinese festival to commemorate the dead. Families mark the day by visiting and cleaning the graves of their ancestors, burning incense and paper money and presenting offerings such as food, tea, wine and joss paper accessories. (Photo by Su

清明節的由來?

關於清明節的歷史故事流傳許多版本,不過在追溯那些傳說前,首先要告訴你其實清明節原本並非為「節日」,在農民曆上屬於二十四節氣的「寒食節」。通常寒食節是冬至後第 105 天,推算下來是清明節前一日,根據《荊楚歲時記》書籍記載,因為日子距離甚近,再加上原本「清明」特殊風俗習慣,所以選擇將兩者合併。

至於寒食節的掃墓習俗從何而來?起源是宋代以後從古代帝王流傳出來的「墓祭之禮」,民間百姓跟著皇室仿效,藉這日子表達對祖先的緬懷和感恩,掃墓、祭拜的形式便就此傳承下來。

有哪些禁忌要小心?

不論是掃墓還是祭祖,在民俗上都有各式各樣的禁忌存在,為避免不小心冒犯到神明,以下幾點事項可千萬要多加留意。

1.掃墓期間禁止叫全名

2.避免穿著紅色衣物,以低彩度、深色系為主。

3.祭拜水果要注意:避開「一串」的水果,例如葡萄、荔枝;中心空心的水果會冒犯祖先;有「旺」字諧音的水果,像是鳳梨、香蕉、李子等;象徵壞兆頭的多籽水果,如芭樂、番茄、百香果。

4.鞋子擺放有學問,掃墓完回到家後記得把鞋頭朝向家門口或屋外,避免把邪氣、晦氣帶進屋內。

5.掃墓最佳時辰為清晨 5 點起至 8 點前,最晚不宜下午 3 點後陽氣較弱時。

UNSPECIFIED - JUNE 06:  Close-up of a bunch of grapes  (Photo by DEA / A.PAGANI/De Agostini via Getty Images)
UNSPECIFIED - JUNE 06: Close-up of a bunch of grapes (Photo by DEA / A.PAGANI/De Agostini via Getty Images)

清明節吃什麼食物應景?

雖然現在說到清明節的必吃食物多數人都回答不出來(尤其在台北更是如此),但在傳統習俗上,因應寒食節不開火的潛規則,過去大家習慣會在清明節享用潤餅(春捲)應景。

Goi cuon or fresh spring rolls.  City of Yogyakarta, Java island, Indonesia, Asia. (Photo by: Mikel Bilbao/VW PICS/Universal Images Group via Getty Images)
Goi cuon or fresh spring rolls. City of Yogyakarta, Java island, Indonesia, Asia. (Photo by: Mikel Bilbao/VW PICS/Universal Images Group via Getty Images)

值得一提的是,在亞洲各國依照不同的文化在當天食用的食物截然不同,例如越南有食元宵和湯圓的習俗,在新加坡則是因為掃墓會準備五牲祭拜祖先,其中包含蛤蠣、螃蟹等海鮮,祭拜完後會當場剝開蛤蠣吃,並把殼丟在墳前表示子孫來掃過墓。

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Arts & Culture Tomb Sweeping Day 清明節 民族掃墓節 連假 掃墓 寒食節 由來 禁忌

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