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Arts Culture 婦女節怎麼慶祝?為什麼跟「38」有關?一篇讓你搞懂背後意義

婦女節怎麼慶祝?為什麼跟「38」有關?一篇讓你搞懂背後意義

attends the Oscars at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 2, 2014 in Hollywood, California.
attends the Oscars at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 2, 2014 in Hollywood, California.
By Allison Chen
March 02, 2021
38 國際婦女節(International Women's Day)即將到來,或許你知道這節日與女權有深遠的關係,不過它的由來你了解多少?取名為「三八」難道是在暗指女性個性「38」?本篇就帶你來一探究竟!

國際婦女節由來

Members of the National Women's Liberation Movement, on an equal rights march from Speaker's Corner to No.10 Downing Street, to mark International Women's Day, London, 6th March 1971. One woman is carrying a placard reading 'Equal Pay Now'. On the right, a woman is holding a copy of the Trotskyist publication 'Red Mole'. (Photo by Daily Express/Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
Members of the National Women's Liberation Movement, on an equal rights march from Speaker's Corner to No.10 Downing Street, to mark International Women's Day, London, 6th March 1971. One woman is carrying a placard reading 'Equal Pay Now'. On the right, a woman is holding a copy of the Trotskyist publication 'Red Mole'. (Photo by Daily Express/Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

國際婦女節是為了紀念女權運動存在,而這段故事則得追溯至二十世紀初。當時歐美國家因為受到經濟快速發展的影響,所以像是紡織業的女工不得不增加,儘管需要大量人力,卻是以低廉的工資僱用勞工,再加上長工時、工作環境也欠佳,種種因素導致這些工人選在 1857 年 3 月 8 日上街抗議,隨後每年都會在這日子舉辦遊行。

起初尚無受到注目,直到 1908 年將近 15,000 名婦女現身紐約街頭爭取權益才日漸備受重視,女性勞工意識抬頭,隔年美國社會主義黨宣布設定為「全國婦女日」(National Women's Day)。話說到這兒,不難好奇為何它會成為「國際性」的節日?

延伸閱讀:2021 元宵節祈福賞花燈、吃湯圓⋯元宵節為什麼要吃湯圓?有哪些禁忌?一次告訴你

March 1924:  German communist leader, socialist and staunch feminist Clara Zetkin (1857 - 1933), who was a friend of Lenin and died in Russia.  (Photo by Topical Press Agency/Getty Images)
國際婦女運動的先驅人物「克拉拉柴特金」(Clara Zetkin)。March 1924: German communist leader, socialist and staunch feminist Clara Zetkin (1857 - 1933), who was a friend of Lenin and died in Russia. (Photo by Topical Press Agency/Getty Images)

1911 年 3 月,一間位於紐約的內衣工廠發生火災共有 140 多名女工罹難,那時除了修改勞工相關法條外,國際婦女運動的先驅人物「克拉拉柴特金」(Clara Zetkin)在哥本哈根舉行的國際婦女會議上也進一步發聲,她提倡應為全國婦女設立節日,而國際婦女節就此正式誕生。

至於許多人納悶「38」這數字是不是轉個彎罵女性「三八」?事實證明只是各位多慮啦!

婦女節可以放假?

Women's Day, poster by Karl Maria Stadler published in Munich, Bavaria, on the occasion of the feast of March 8. Lithograph, Germany, Munich of Bavaria 1914. (Photo by Fototeca Gilardi/Getty Images)
1914 年德國使用的國際婦女節海報。Women's Day, poster by Karl Maria Stadler published in Munich, Bavaria, on the occasion of the feast of March 8. Lithograph, Germany, Munich of Bavaria 1914. (Photo by Fototeca Gilardi/Getty Images)

既然是節日,那麼會像清明節、中秋節一樣不用上班嗎?以台灣來說,雖然現在這天依舊得上班上課,但其實早在 1994 年前是國定能夠享有假期的節日,隨後內政部改為與四月的兒童節合併放假,直到 1998 年才正式取消 3 月 8 日的休假制度。

不過,目前仍有多個國家把國際婦女節列為國定假日,包含俄羅斯、烏克蘭、越南、尼泊爾、柬埔寨、烏干達、哈薩克、古巴等 27 個國家,有趣的是,其中馬達加斯加、馬其頓都只限定女性可選擇在這天放假。

所以,有哪些慶祝方式?

SKOPJE, MACEDONIA - MARCH 08: A woman takes a photo as she joins Macedonian nationalists marching to the parliament during a rally on Women's day on March 8, 2017 in Skopje, Macedonia. The political crisis deepens as the president refuses to grant the socialist democrats with a mandate in order to form a government with the Albanian parties. European and NATO officials are pressuring the president to give the mandate to the parliamentarian majority formed by the socialist democrats and Albanian parties. Rus
SKOPJE, MACEDONIA - MARCH 08: A woman takes a photo as she joins Macedonian nationalists marching to the parliament during a rally on Women's day on March 8, 2017 in Skopje, Macedonia. The political crisis deepens as the president refuses to grant the socialist democrats with a mandate in order to form a government with the Albanian parties. European and NATO officials are pressuring the president to give the mandate to the parliamentarian majority formed by the socialist democrats and Albanian parties. Rus

每年隨著國際婦女節的到來,從 3 月開始全球各國都會展開一連串相關的慶祝活動,過去是上街遊行表達訴求,現在則是以歡慶女性在社會上不同領域的貢獻和表揚成就為主。值得一提的是,部分國家(如智利、保加利亞、克羅埃西亞、羅馬尼亞)將這節日視同為母親節等級的重要,男性會挑選花束或小禮物贈送給身邊重要的女性,抑或小孩送禮物給媽媽表達感謝之情。不曉得今年的國際婦女節,你會想做些什麼事呢?

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Arts & Culture Wellness 國際婦女節 婦女節 女權 慶祝 節日 由來 女權運動 International Women's Day

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